The world of knowledge communication is busy, even noisy. Industrial communication techniques, akin to balanced RS-485 / RS-422, typically require transmission between a number of units over lengthy distances. Whereas having many units speaking with one another on the identical twisted-pair cable is strong and price-efficient, it additionally introduces two main challenges: 1) due to the lengthy distances and the encompassing electrical units/gear, RS-485 / RS-422 networks are sometimes uncovered to electrical noises, distant lightning, and line surges, which may trigger transient voltage to run throughout the serial communication system and the precious gear; 2) as a result of a number of units (nodes) are related, the bottom potential at totally different nodes could possibly be totally different, which may trigger floor currents to move via “the trail of least resistance” by way of both the widespread earth floor or the bottom wire. Each voltage and present surges may cause critical injury to worthwhile, mission-essential gear similar to computer systems, PLCs, and industrial manufacturing and knowledge processing gear; these surges may even endanger human lives. Floor loop issues additionally exist on unbalanced alerts that depend on the bottom pin being zero volts, akin to RS-232 and USB. Optical Isolators and Surge Protectors are the options to those issues.